Called by some “the angel of Beale Street,” Julia Britton Hooks (1862-1942) was among the first black women in the country to attend college. Moving to Memphis in 1876, she taught in the public schools and later founded the Hooks Cottage School. She was a gifted musician whose pupils included W.C. Handy. As an early leader for social welfare, she founded the Negro Old Folks and Orphans Home in 1891, playing concerts to pay for the building. In 1917, she was a charter member of the NAACP; 60 years later, her grandson, Benjamin Hooks, became its national director.